Endometriosis

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a disorder that causes the endometrium to grow outside the uterus. Endometriosis affects the ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue that lines the pelvis. It hardly spreads beyond these areas. 

Endometriosis can cause pain especially during your menstrual cycle. Fertility problems also may develop. However, effective treatments are available.

Women who are at a risk mostly involve women who are between the age of 30-40 years, those who did not produce any foetus, have periods longer than 7 days or cycles shorter than 28 days, commended their menstrual cycle before the age of 12 and those who have a mother or sister who has endometriosis.

More than 5.5 million American women show symptoms of endometriosis. Endometriosis affects between 6 and 10 percent of women of reproductive age worldwide.

Endometriosis is documented in medical texts since 4000 years, although it was discovered microscopically in 1860 by Bohemian Physician and Pathologist Karl Von Rokitansky.   

 

Causes:

Endometriosis causes

  • Embryonic cell transformation: Embryonic cells gets converted in to endometrial cells due to estrogen hormones during puberty.
  • Endometrial cells transport: Endometrial cells are transported to the other parts of the body through blood vessels.
  • Retrograde menstruation: Retrograde menstruation is an inverse process of mensuration, where menstrual blood flows backwards in to the pelvic cavity through fallopian tubes.
  • Transformation of peritoneal cells: Peritoneal cells gets transformed in to endometrial cells in the influence of hormones or immune factors, this also a part of Induction theory.
  • Surgical scar implantation:  Endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision after a surgery.
  • Immune system disorder: Immune system disorder may prevent the destruction of endometrial tissues growing outside the uterus.

 

Symptoms:

Endometriosis Symptoms

  • Dysmenorrhea or painful periods.  
  • Painful intercourse.
  • Pain during bowel movements or urination. 
  • Excessive bleeding, like heavy periods (menorrhagia) or bleeding between periods (menometrorrhagia).
  • Infertility
  • Fatigue
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea

 

Risk Factors:

Endometriosis risk factors

  • Infertility
  • Starting your period at an early age.
  • Menopause at an older age.
  • Short menstrual cycles.
  • Lower levels of estrogen in the body.
  • Low body mass index.
  • Consumption of alcohol.
  • One or more relatives with endometriosis.
  • Medical conditions which may prevent the normal passage of menstrual flow like Retrograde Menstruation.
  • Uterine abnormalities

Complications:

endometriosis complications

  • Infertility
  • Ovarian Cancer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagnosis:

Pelvic exam:

  • Pelvic Exam: Doctors recommend a pelvic exam in which they manually feel areas in your pelvis to look for abnormalities, such as cysts on your reproductive organs or scars behind your uterus.

Pelvic Exam

  • Ultrasound: Doctors recommend an ultrasound which uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the inside of your body (transvaginal ultrasound).

transvaginal ultrasound

 

  • Laparoscopy: Doctors recommend to look inside your abdomen for signs of endometriosis using a surgical procedure called laparoscopy.

endometriosis leproscopy

Treatment:

  • Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others), to help reduce painful menstrual cramps.
  • Hormone therapy: Therapies used to treat endometriosis include:
  1. Hormonal contraceptives- Buildup of endometrial tissue can be can be controlled by Birth control pills, patches and vaginal rings.
  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone – ovarian-stimulating hormones production is blocked by these drugs through lowering estrogen levels and preventing menstruation.
  3. Fertility treatment: Pregnancy may be recommended via in-vitro fertilization (IVF).
  • Conservative surgery: This surgery is used to extract as much endometriosis as possible, for the women willing to get pregnant. It is also performed for the women who suffer from extreme pain owing to endometriosis.
  • Assisted Reproductive Techniques: ART procedures like IUI, IVF, ICSI etc also helps in become pregnant and are sometimes preferable to conservative surgery.
  • Hysterectomy: For severe endometriosis, a surgery is performed to remove the uterus and cervix as well as both ovaries. A hysterectomy is a last resort, especially for women still in their reproductive years. You cannot conceive after hysterectomy.

Precautions:

  • Healthy diet.
  • Regular exercising.
  • Yoga
  • Massage
  • Accupuncture
  • Meditation

EvaIVF offers a low-risk way to treat Endometriosis.  Our team of experienced and skilled doctors make life at hospital a painless one and guarantee a speedy recovery.

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