Pelvic inflammatory disease

pelvic inflammatory disease


Pelvic Inflammatory disease is condition that causes infection in the woman’s reproductive organs- ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and cervix. It is caused by the bacteria that spread from the vagina and cervix, i.e. sexually transmitted infections (STI) like chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhea  (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), which include 75-90% of the cases of PID. However, these can be treated with the help of antibiotics.



  • Pain in the pelvic region or lower abdomen.
  • Upper abdominal pain.
  • Excess of foul smelling vaginal discharge.
  • Bleeding between periods.
  • Pain during sexual activity.
  • Pain while urinating.
  • Fever that s more than 101 degree Fahrenheit.
  • Fatigue.
  • Fainting.
  • Vomiting.

causes of pelvic inflammatory disease




  • Most common bacteria that cause PID include chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis ) and gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), which are transmitted during unprotected sexual activity.
  • When a bacteria enters the reproductive tract when the cervix is disturbed, usually after childbirth, abortion or miscarriage.




Pelvic Inflammatory disease Risk


  • Indulging in sexual activity before the age of 25.
  • having multiple sexual partners or indulging in unprotected sex.
  • Use of Intrauterine Device (IUD) to prevent pregnancy.
  • Douching.
  • Having a history of pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted infection.





Pelvic Inflammatory Complications


  • Infertility: PID causes damage of the reproductive organs, which may lead to infertility.
  • Tubo-ovarian abscess: Pelvic Inflammatory disease can cause production of abscess in the uterine tube and ovaries, which can lead to life-threatening infection if left untreated.
  • Ectopic pregnancy: In an ectopic pregnancy, the scar tissue from PID and prevents the fertilized egg from travelling through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus. Ectopic pregnancies may cause massive bleeding which may be life threatening and require emergency medical treatment.
  • Chronic pelvic pain: PID can cause chronic pelvic pain that might last for several months to several years.




pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis

  • Blood and urine tests: Doctors recommend blood and urine tests which help in measuring the count of the white blood cells that help indicate infection. Doctors might also recommend HIV tests and tests for STI.
  • Pelvic exam: Doctors recommend a pelvic exam in which they manually feel areas in your pelvis to look for abnormalities, such as cysts on your reproductive organs or scars behind your uterus.
  • Ultrasound: Doctors recommend ultrasound that involves sound waves to create images of the reproductive organs.
  • Laparoscopy: Doctors recommend to look inside your abdomen for signs of endometriosis using a surgical procedure called laparoscopy.
  • Cervical culture: Doctors recommend cervical culture to detect infections in the cervix.





  • Intake of antibiotics.
  • Medical examination of your partner to prevent STIs.
  • Not indulging in sexual activity until the treatment is completed.  
  • Surgery is rarely required.






  • Having protected sex.
  • Consult your doctor before taking any contraceptives.
  • Get yourself and your partner tested.
  • Avoid douching.






Pelvic inflammatory disease is a very common medical condition and most women make a full recovery after the proper medical treatment. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 10 to 15 percent of women with PID will have difficulty in conceiving. Moreover, the Berkeley County Health Department notes that about 9 percent of women will have an ectopic pregnancy, and 18 percent of women will have chronic pelvic pain as a result of PID. 




EvaIVF offers a low-risk way to treat Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Our team of experienced and skilled doctors make life at hospital a painless one and guarantee a speedy recovery.