Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome also known as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, It was first described by American Gynecologist Dr. Irving F Stein Sr and Michael L. Leventhal in the year of 1935. However the first published description of a patient with PCOS records back to 1721 from Italy. It is a condition that is caused by a disorder of the hormones. It usually affects women of reproductive age, i.e. 15 to 44. Women who have PCOS have irregular or prolonged menstrual cycle or an abnormal increase of the male hormones (androgen). In this condition, the ovaries produce many small collections of fluid and are unable to release the eggs produced regularly.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Almost 2.2% to 26.7% of women in their reproductive age group develop PCOS. A study suggests that around 70% of the women with PCOS are not even diagnosed, since they do not know they have PCOS.


The exact cause of PCOS isn’t known, however some of the factors which may cause PCOS:

  • Low-grade inflammation: This involves the production of substances by the white blood cells, which help to fight infection. According to studies, women have a type of low-grade inflammation, which makes the polycystic ovaries to increase the production of androgen, which leads to problems wit heart and blood vessels.
  • Increased insulin: When the cells become resistant to the action of insulin, blood sugar level increases and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might cause an increase in the production of androgen, leading to difficulty with ovulation.
  • Heredity: According to research, PCOS can be inherited or passed through genes.
  • Excess androgen:Sometimes, the ovaries can produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism (hair growth) and acne.


PCOS Symptoms

  • Irregularity in menstrual cycle: As a result of a lack of ovulation, the uterine lining is unable to shed every month which cause lack of periods.
  • Heavy bleeding: Because the uterine lining builds up for a long time, so the periods you do get can be heavier than normal.
  • Abnormal growth of hair:More than 70 percent of women PCOS grow hair on their face and body — including on their back, belly, and chest. Excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
  • Acne: Increase in male hormones called androgens, causes skin to become excessively oily, which leads acne on face, chest and back.
  • Male-pattern baldness: Women with PCOS suffer with thinning of hair and also lose them.
  • Increase in weight :Up to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or obese.
  • Skin darkening:Dark patches of skin can form in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
  • Headaches: Headaches can be caused due to hormonal changes in women.

How PCOS affects your body?

PCOS affects body

PCOS can cause:

  • Infertility.
  • Sleep apnea, frequent obstructions in the breathing while sleeping at night.
  • Endometrial cancer, caused by buildup of uterine lining, which increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
  • Miscarriage or premature birth
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver.
  • Metabolic syndrome.
  • Type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes.
  • Depression.


PCOS Diagnosis

  • Physical examination: Doctors check if the patients show symptoms like acne, hair growth on face and body and weight gain.
  • Pelvic exam: A Gloved(lubricated) finger is inserted in the vagina by the experienced doctor to check for any growth in the Ovaries or Uterus.
  • Blood tests: Doctors recommend blood tests to check your level of male hormones, cholesterol, insulin, and triglyceride levels.
  • Ultrasound: Doctors recommend ultrasound to look for abnormal follicles and other problems with your ovaries and uterus.




PCOS can be treated by medications which help in regulating the Menstruation cycle and also help in ovulation. Some medications may also be prescribed for excessive hair growth

Change in lifestyle:

  • Low-calorie diet.
  • Losing body fats.



If the medications do not work to the desired result, then a surgical procedure named Ovarian drilling is performed to cure PCOS. Its procedure that makes tiny holes in the ovary with a laser or thin heated needle to restore normal ovulation.

EvaIVF offers low-risk way to treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Our team of experienced and skilled doctors make life at hospital a painless one and guarantee a speedy recovery.